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Textile Fiber And Fiber Classification

We’ve discussed about some different textile fibers in our previous post. For example, Lyocell and Tencel. I think it’s time to make a conclusion.

What Is Textile Fiber?

Before we talk about it, we need to clarify the definition of fiber.

So what is fiber? Fiber is a material only has few or dozens micrometer of its diameter. But the length is multiple times of its diameter. For example, like muscle fiber in human body, hair fiber from animal skin, cotton fiber, spider silk, and some others.

Because of the different properties, not all fibers can be used to make textile product. Only the fiber has textile processability and end use performance can be called textile fiber.

Textile Fiber Properties

  • Weavable. It means the degree of difficulty during the weaving process of fiber to yarn. In order to weave the fiber to yarn. It requires the fiber has more than dozens millimeter length with certain fineness, softness, cohesion, flexibility and wrap capability.

  • Mechanical properties. The fiber should have certain strength, deformability, stretch, abrasion resistance, and friction.

  • Chemical stability. The fiber will take effect with dying material and finishing additives. So it needs to have the anti-damage capability from chemical additives.
  • Heat resistance. It will occur difference heat temperature during the fiber weaving and fabric production. Such as sizing, boiling, dying, and ironing. So the fiber should have the heat resistance ability.

Textile Fiber Classification

How many textile fiber types are there? I think you may ask me this question. There’re many kinds. And also many different classifications. According to the fiber origin, it can be divided into 2 categories.

  • Natural fiber. Direct or indirect from plant, animal. Such as cotton fiber, wool fiber, silk fiber.
  • Chemical fiber. By using the natural high polymer or synthetic high polymer as the material. Through some chemical or physical production process to make the textile fiber. Like rayon fiber, polyester fiber, nylon fiber, acetate fiber and so on.

I made a form for your easy understanding.

textile fiber classification
Textile Fiber Classification Form

Fiber Abbreviation

Different fiber has different name. We use the certain abbreviation for them. Here below is the academic abbreviation for each textile fiber.

  • C for cotton
  • W for wool
  • L for linen
  • S for silk
  • R for normal rayon
  • T for polyester
  • A for acrylic
  • PVAL for polyvinyl alcohol fiber
  • P for polyamide
  • PU for Spandex

These are all academic abbreviation. In our daily work, sometimes we use P for polyester to identify it from Tencel. And we will write polyamide the full name in fabric content to make things clear.

You can share your ideas with us. We will be glad to receive your message if you want to know anything about textile. 

I will share the idea with you about the properties of each textile fiber next time. So please stay tuned for the next post!

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